ASTM F2772 Sports Flooring Standard
In areas designated for sports and recreation, it is important to judge a floor by the characteristics that optimize it for physical activities. This is where ASTM F2772 comes in. ASTM F2772 measures four key factors regarding safety and suitability for sports activities. These factors are: force reduction, surface finish effect (also called “friction”), ball rebound and vertical deformation. Each parameter provides valuable information for selecting a sports/recreational flooring system. Systems that can be tested under ASTM F2772 are: area elastic (wood systems), point elastic (synthetic systems), and combi-elastic (systems combining area elastic and point elastic construction). ASTM F2772 is the first US-born testing for basketball court flooring.
Read more from Tarkett Sports on ASTM F2772 here
Force reduction (also called “shock absorption”) evaluates a surface’s ability to reduce impact force. This predominantly relates to impacts generated by lower extremities, for example an athlete running. Force reduction is tested according to ASTM F2569 and it indicates the degree of attenuation provided by the surface in response to certain movements. ASTM F2772 arranges degrees of force reduction into five classes, to assist in determining the appropriate level for specific sports and/or other activities. ASTM F2772 also establishes a minimum value of 10% force reduction for any floor space designed for indoor athletics or physical recreation.
Ball rebound (also called ball bounce) is a mechanical property that determines a surface’s suitability for basketball. It is tested according to ASTM F2117 and accounts for two parameters: performance level (average performance of test points must reach a minimum of 90%) and uniformity level (test point deviation cannot exceed 3% of the average of all tests). Ball rebound is based on the responsiveness of a ball and its interaction with the surface. It is calculated by comparing the ball’s rebound height on the sports surface to the rebound height of the same ball on concrete. The result is expressed as a percentage. The uniformity requirement ensures consistent ball bounce throughout the flooring system. This particular testing methodology is specific to basketballs, but may offer useful information for other inflated balls that come into contact with the flooring’s surface as well.
Surface Finish Effect (Friction)
Surface finish effect describes a surface’s response to a sliding foot, typically under dry conditions. It is tested according to ASTM E303 and accounts for two parameters: performance level (testing must achieve a value between 80-110) and uniformity level (individual tests cannot vary more than 4 points from the average value); the testing apparatus used for ASTM F2772 is reliable, repeatable, and portable (in the event field testing is desired). With indoor athletic activities, it is important to note that the optimal degree of friction varies. Some surfaces designed for competitive sports, such as sprinting, require more resistance to sliding than other sports, such as basketball. The value acquired in testing can be compared to historically acceptable levels of friction for indoor athletics such as basketball and volleyball.
Vertical deformation values indicate the ability of the surface to deform under load. High deformation can affect the safety of the athlete, causing instability of the foot, while low deformation may cause injuries as a result of immediate impact force. The testing and parameters of acceptable results are specific for each type of flooring system (area elastic, point elastic, and combi-elastic). Vertical deformation is tested according to ASTM F2157 and accounts for two parameters per system type:
For point elastic/synthetic flooring, values should be <0.138” (3.5 mm). Area elastic/wood flooring is classified into either an inclusive or exclusive range. The inclusive class A represents values between 0.071”-0.197” (1.8 mm – 5.0 mm) and exclusive class B represents values <0.071” (<1.8 mm). For combination systems (wood/synthetic), inclusive values are 0.071”-0.197” (1.8 mm – 5.0 mm) for wood and >0.020 or <0.079 (>0.5 mm or < 2.0 mm) for the synthetic surface.
Uniformity level (for all system types):
Mean absolute deviation of individual tests should not exceed 0.03” (0.7mm) relative to the average of all test point values.
ASTM International is a globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards. Today, some 12,000 ASTM standards are used around the world. ASTM’s leadership in international standards development is driven by the contributions of its members: more than 30,000 of the world’s top technical experts and business professionals representing 135 countries. ASTM members deliver the test methods, specifications, guides and practices that support industries and governments worldwide. Before ASTM F2772, sports floors were manufactured to meet the standards of European or German committees. These standards were focused on the sporting activities popular in Europe. ASTM F2772 is inclined toward the needs of North American sports. This makes it the most relevant standard to use in North America. To download a complete version of ASTM F2772-11, visit www.astm.org.
When making a purchasing decision, it is important to know and understand the third-party certifications that apply to indoor sports flooring. These certifications can help simplify complex issues such as environmental impact or indoor air quality and also serve as an objective source of information. The section below contains a glossary of important certifications that can be used to evaluate a sports floor based on your needs and values.
Asthma and Allergy Friendly Certification
The asthma & allergy friendly™ certification was developed by the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America in partnership with Asthma Standards Limited. It identifies flooring and other products that are healthier for asthma and allergy suffers. A certified flooring product has been scientifically tested to prove: a low capacity for retention of allergen, accumulated allergen can be removed by the recommended cleaning technique, recommended cleaning will not result in exposure of the operator to airborne allergen, and installation of flooring does not result in elevated levels of chemicals such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and other VOCs. With increasing concern for indoor air quality, particularly in schools, this certification can identify healthier gym flooring options in regard to their effect on asthma and allergy sufferers.
Indoor air quality can have a significant effect of health and well-being and should be an important consideration for any gymnasium or athletic facility. Floor Score® is a criteria developed by the Resilient Floor Covering Institute (RFCI) and SCS Global Services to distinguish flooring which complies with the stringent air quality standards adopted in the California Section 01350 standard. To achieve the Floor Score® certification, products must limit the emissions of specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to levels specified in the California Section 01350 standard. Compliance with this standard is independently verified by SCS Global Services, requiring an audit of the manufacturing process, supply chain, and chemical sources.
FSC® Chain of Custody Certification
In order to make environmentally responsible decisions about sports flooring, it helps to not only understand the floor itself, but also how it was produced. What environmental impact resulted from the manufacture and distribution of the floor? For hardwood courts, an easy way to establish this fact is by looking for the FSC® Chain-of-Custody Certification. This certification, created by the Forest Stewardship Council™, verifies that each step in production of hardwood flooring, from harvesting to distribution, is performed in a responsible manner. All of Tarkett Sports' ClutchCourt maple flooring can be purchased as FSC® Chain-of-Custody Certified. Visit the Forest Stewardship Council™ website to learn more about this and other certifications related to the production of hardwood flooring.
GREENGUARD Gold Certification
Children are more sensitive to poor indoor air quality than adults. For them, a higher standard of health and safety is needed. GREENGUARD Gold identifies flooring that goes above and beyond typical indoor air quality standards, exceeding the requirements of California Section 01350 by a wide margin. It is recognized by the Collaborative for High Performance Schools (CHPS) Best Practice Manual for K-12 Schools and the LEED building rating system. GREENGUARD Gold is recognized protection for those most sensitive to poor indoor air quality.
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